This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. There is increasing recognition that ADHD symptoms and clinically defined disorder can persist into adult life and are associated with later drug and alcohol misuse and social and work difficulties. Added to that is the extreme variability of the disorder over time, within the same individual, between individuals, and across different circumstances. Treatment with stimulants and nonstimulants has proven effective in different subgroups, with the effectiveness of specific agents most likely related to the primary neurotransmitter involved.
Clinical practice One type of acupuncture needle Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine.
The majority of people who seek out acupuncture do so for musculoskeletal problems, including low back painshoulder stiffness, and knee pain. In TCM, the four diagnostic methods are: Inspection focuses on the face and particularly on the tongue, including analysis of the tongue size, shape, tension, color and coating, and the absence or presence of teeth marks around the edge.
Thinner needles may be flexible and require tubes for insertion. The tip of the needle should not be made too sharp to prevent breakage, although blunt needles cause more pain.
Korean acupuncture uses copper needles and has a greater focus on the hand. Needles may be manipulated in various ways, including spinning, flicking, or moving up and down relative to the skin.
Since most pain is felt in the superficial layers of the skin, a quick insertion of the needle is recommended. If de-qi can not be generated, then inaccurate location of the acupointimproper depth of needle insertion, inadequate manual manipulation, or a very weak constitution of the patient can be considered, all of which are thought to decrease the likelihood of successful treatment.
If the de-qi sensation does not immediately occur upon needle insertion, various manual manipulation techniques can be applied to promote it such as "plucking", "shaking" or "trembling". Other techniques aim at "tonifying" Chinese: Traditionally, acupuncture was used to treat acute conditions while moxibustion was used for chronic diseases.
Moxibustion could be direct the cone was placed directly on the skin and allowed to burn the skin, producing a blister and eventually a scaror indirect either a cone of moxa was placed on a slice of garlic, ginger or other vegetable, or a cylinder of moxa was held above the skin, close enough to either warm or burn it.
However, a review found that most published trials of the technique were of poor value due to methodology issues and larger trials would be needed to draw useful conclusions. It involves inserting needles to stimulate points on the outer ear.
Hand acupuncture, developed in Korea, centers around assumed reflex zones of the hand. Medical acupuncture attempts to integrate reflexological concepts, the trigger point model, and anatomical insights such as dermatome distribution into acupuncture practice, and emphasizes a more formulaic approach to acupuncture point location.
Sujichim, hand acupuncture A woman receiving fire cupping in China. Effectiveness Acupuncture has been researched extensively; as ofthere were almost 1, randomized controlled trials on PubMed with "acupuncture" in the title.
The results of reviews of reviews of acupuncture's effectiveness, however, have been inconclusive.
In other words, 'sham' or 'placebo' acupuncture generally produces the same effects as 'real' acupuncture and, in some cases, does better.
This study also found that selective reporting of results and changing outcome measures to obtain statistically significant results was common in this literature.
The same review noted that "It is difficult to draw conclusion [sic] because the included studies have a high risk of bias and imprecision. The same review found that the strength of the evidence for both conditions was low to moderate.Though many scientists and researchers have approached the study of child development over the last hundred or so years, only a few of the theories that have resulted have stood the test of time and have proven to be widely influential.
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