An analysis of the 16th and 17th century performance conditions

Contact between Sweden and what is now Finland was considerable even during pre-Christian times; the Vikings were known to the Finns due to their participation in both commerce and plundering. There is possible evidence of Viking settlement in the Finnish mainland.

Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, philosophy, art, music, politics, science, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, and searched for realism and human emotion in art.

It is in their new focus on literary and historical texts that Renaissance scholars differed so markedly from the medieval scholars of the Renaissance of the 12th centurywho had focused on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural sciences, philosophy and mathematics, rather than on such cultural texts.

Portrait of a Young Woman c. However, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion that was reflected in many other areas of cultural life. This new engagement with Greek Christian works, and particularly the return to the original Greek of the New Testament promoted by humanists Lorenzo Valla and Erasmuswould help pave the way for the Protestant Reformation.

Well after the first artistic return to classicism had been exemplified in the sculpture of Nicola PisanoFlorentine painters led by Masaccio strove to portray the human form realistically, developing techniques to render perspective and light more naturally.

A critical contribution to Italian Renaissance humanism Giovanni Pico della Mirandola wrote the famous text "De hominis dignitate" Oration on the Dignity of Man, which consists of a series of theses on philosophy, natural thought, faith and magic defended against any opponent on the grounds of reason.

In addition to studying classical Latin and Greek, Renaissance authors also began increasingly to use vernacular languages; combined with the introduction of printingthis would allow many more people access to books, especially the Bible.

An analysis of the 16th and 17th century performance conditions

Some scholars, such as Rodney Stark[21] play down the Renaissance in favor of the earlier innovations of the Italian city-states in the High Middle Ageswhich married responsive government, Christianity and the birth of capitalism.

This analysis argues that, whereas the great European states France and Spain were absolutist monarchies, and others were under direct Church control, the independent city republics of Italy took over the principles of capitalism invented on monastic estates and set off a vast unprecedented commercial revolution that preceded and financed the Renaissance.

Italian Renaissance View of Florencebirthplace of the Renaissance Many argue that the ideas characterizing the Renaissance had their origin in late 13th-century Florencein particular with the writings of Dante Alighieri — and Petrarch —as well as the paintings of Giotto di Bondone — Some writers date the Renaissance quite precisely; one proposed starting point iswhen the rival geniuses Lorenzo Ghiberti and Filippo Brunelleschi competed for the contract to build the bronze doors for the Baptistery of the Florence Cathedral Ghiberti won.

Yet it remains much debated why the Renaissance began in Italy, and why it began when it did. Accordingly, several theories have been put forward to explain its origins. During the Renaissance, money and art went hand in hand.

Artists depended entirely on patrons while the patrons needed money to foster artistic talent. Wealth was brought to Italy in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries by expanding trade into Asia and Europe. Silver mining in Tyrol increased the flow of money.

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Luxuries from the Eastern world, brought home during the Crusadesincreased the prosperity of Genoa and Venice. Please improve the article or discuss the issue. June Coluccio Salutati In stark contrast to the High Middle Ageswhen Latin scholars focused almost entirely on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural science, philosophy and mathematics, [25] Renaissance scholars were most interested in recovering and studying Latin and Greek literary, historical, and oratorical texts.

Ancient Greek works on science, maths and philosophy had been studied since the High Middle Ages in Western Europe and in the medieval Islamic world normally in translationbut Greek literary, oratorical and historical works such as Homer, the Greek dramatists, Demosthenes and Thucydides were not studied in either the Latin or medieval Islamic worlds; in the Middle Ages these sorts of texts were only studied by Byzantine scholars.

One of the greatest achievements of Renaissance scholars was to bring this entire class of Greek cultural works back into Western Europe for the first time since late antiquity.

Arab logicians had inherited Greek ideas after they had invaded and conquered Egypt and the Levant. Their translations and commentaries on these ideas worked their way through the Arab West into Iberia and Sicilywhich became important centers for this transmission of ideas.

An analysis of the 16th and 17th century performance conditions

From the 11th to the 13th century, many schools dedicated to the translation of philosophical and scientific works from Classical Arabic to Medieval Latin were established in Iberia. Most notably the Toledo School of Translators.

This work of translation from Islamic culture, though largely unplanned and disorganized, constituted one of the greatest transmissions of ideas in history.During the 13th century, the bishopric of Turku was established. The cathedral of Turku was the center of the cult of Saint Henry, and naturally the cultural center of the bishop had the ecclesiastical authority over much of today's Finland and was usually the most powerful man there.

Performing Shakespeare in the 17th Century Shakespeare's actors had to compete against the noise of the crowd who shouted, hurled oranges and tried to join in with their performance on the stage. People from all classes went to the theatre. Ishqbaaz 16th January Written Episode, Written Update on Rudra says Om and Gauri have to play Shivaye and Anika.

Anika and Shivaye romance. Comedy, type of drama or other art form the chief object of which, according to modern notions, is to amuse. It is contrasted on the one hand with tragedy and on the other with farce, burlesque, and other forms of humorous amusement..

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The classic conception of comedy, which began with Aristotle in ancient Greece of the 4th century bce and persists through the present, holds that it is. 16th and 17th Century Performance Conditions Commedia del'Arte and Cycle Plays.

Noah, for example, might exhort the men on the audience to establish control over their wives whilst Noahs wife would The Age of Exploration and Onwards - Social and Economic Development.

new and more efficient shipping routes. Women in the 16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries Women in the 19th Century Women in the Early to Midth Century ().

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